general hospital: bv đa khoa
emergency department: khoa cấp cứu
district hospital: bv quận
intensive care and long-term care
seniors’ (geriatric) hospitals,
A teaching hospital: combines assistance to people with teaching
to medical students and nurses.
The medical facility smaller than a hospital is generally called a clinic.
Hospitals have a range of departments (e.g.:
and specialist units such as
chronic treatment units.
Common support units include a
founding religious orders
Christian denominations, including the
, which run hospitals.
a retirement and nursing home
for veteran soldiers.
determinants: các yếu tố gây ảnh hưởng tới
Các yếu tố xã hội gây ảnh hưởng tới sức khỏe
Health care or healthcare
medical examination/diagnosis, treatment and prevention: việc khám, chữa, và phòng bệnh.
diagnosis, chuẩn đoán
and other physical and mental impairments
health professionals (providers or practitioners) in
and other health professions.
Judicial history card
Article 6. Prohibited acts
1. Refusing to provide or intentionally delaying first aid for patients.
2. Providing medical examination and treatment without a medical practice certificate or during the time subject to suspension from professional practice; providing medical examination and treatment services without an operation license or during the time subject to suspension from operation.
3. Practicing medical examination and treatment or providing medical examination and treatment services outside the scope of professional operation under a medical practice certificate or operation license, except cases of emergency.
4. Hiring, borrowing, leasing or lending medical practice certificates or operation licenses.
5. Practitioners selling drugs to patients in any forms, except
herb assistant doctors,
herbalists: a therapist who heals by the use of herbs
and owners of family remedies.
6. Applying medical professional methods and techniques which have not been recognized and using drugs which have not been licensed for circulation, in medical examination and treatment.
7. Advertising professional capacity and qualifications untruthfully or beyond the scope of professional operation under medical practice certificates or operation licenses; abusing traditional herbal medicament knowledge or other medical knowledge to advertise treatment methods or drugs untruthfully.
medicament(n) dược phẩm. (medicine) something that treats or prevents or alleviates the symptoms of disease
8. Using superstitions in medical examination and treatment.
superstitions: sự mê tín an irrational belief arising from ignorance or fear
9. Practitioners drinking alcohol or beer or smoking or having an alcoholic concentration in blood or breath when providing medical examination and treatment.
10. Infringing upon patients’ rights; xâm phạm đến các quyền của bệnh nhân
failing to observe professional and technical regulations in medical examination and treatment;
observe:conform one’s action or practice to
taking advantage of positions and powers in medical examination and treatment:
abusing the profession
to harm the honor, dignity and body of patients: xâm hại danh dự, nhân phẩm và cơ thể của người bệnh.
erasing and modifying case history dossiers to falsify information on medical examination and treatment.
11. Harming the health, life, honor and dignity of practitioners.
12. Obstructing patients in need of compulsory treatment in admitting to medical examination and treatment establishments or intentionally providing treatment for those not in need of compulsory treatment.
13. Medical cadres, civil servants and public employees establishing, engaged in the establishment or management and administration of, private hospitals or medical examination and treatment establishments set up and operating under the Enterprise Law or the Law on Cooperatives, unless they are assigned by competent state agencies to manage and administer state-funded medical examination and treatment establishments.
14. Bribe giving, taking and broking in medical examination and treatment.
In this Law, the terms below are construed as follows:
1. Medical examination
means the inquiry into diseases and
physical examination, and instruction for
paraclinical testing or
when necessary, for diagnosis and instruction of recognized appropriate treatment methods.
2. Medical treatment
means the use of recognized professional and technical methods
licensed for circulation
for first aid,
functional rehabilitation: phục hồi chức năng.
means a user of medical examination and treatment services.
4. Medical practice certificate: giấy phép hành nghề
means a document granted by
a competent state agency
to a person
eligible for professional practice
under this Law.
5. License for medical examination and treatment: giấy phép khám chữa bệnh
(below referred to as operation license).
means a document granted by a competent state agency to a medical examination and treatment establishment eligible for operation under this Law
6. Medical practitioner: người đang hành nghề trong lĩnh vực y tế
means a person possessing a medical practice certificate and practicing medical examination and treatment
(below referred to as practitioner).
practitioner: someone who practices a learned profession
7. Medical examination and treatment establishment
means a fixed or mobile establishment possessing an operation license and providing medical examination and treatment services.8.
means a person knowledgeable about
and experienced in providing examination and treatment with
traditional medicine methods
with or without drugs, which are recognized by
the Ministry of Health: bộ y tế
or provincial-level Health Departments: Sở y tế cấp tỉnh
after consulting the
Central Oriental Medicine Council: Trung Ương Hội Đông Y Việt Nam
or provincial-level Oriental Medicine Councils: Hội Đông Y cấp tỉnh.
Oriental: connected with or typical of the eastern part of the world, especially China and Japan, and the people who live there. thuộc về phương đông.
Vietnam Academy of Traditional Medicine: Học viện Y Dược Học Cổ truyền Việt Nam
Accreditation Commission: uy ban cấp phép, cấp vốn.
for Acupuncture: thuật châm cứu. treatment of pain or disease by inserting the tips of needles at specific points on the skin
An acupuncture School/College.
and Oriental Medicine : đông dược, Thuốc Đông y. Đông y. Y học phương Đông.
9 Owner of
a family herbal remedy or treatment method: bài thuốc gia truyền
means a person owning an old remedy or treatment method
passed from one generation to another of a family or family line (dòng họ),
which effectively cures one or some diseases or symptoms
and is recognized by a provincial-level Health Department after consulting a provincial-level Oriental Medicine Council.
10. Continued updating of medical knowledge: Việc cập nhật thường xuyên liên tục
means a practitioner’s attendance to short-term health training courses (khóa huấn luyện),
conferences and seminars related to his/her professional practice under programs approved or recognized by the Ministry of Health and receipt of training certificates under the Health Minister’s regulations.
11. Abandoned patient
means a patient in an emergency state, suffering from a mental disease or being abandoned, including
infants abandoned at medical examination and treatment establishments,
without personal identification papers
and whose address of residence is unknown.
means a discussion between practitioners on the
of a patient for diagnosis and introduction of appropriate and timely treatment methods.
13. Incident in medical examination and treatment
means consequences harming the health or life of a patient caused by professional and technical mistakes in medical examination and treatment or unexpected misfortunes in medical examination and treatment
even though a practitioner has observed professional and technical regulations.
observed (adj): discovered or determined by scientific observation
tính trang trọng (formality):
tính chuyên môn (technicality)
A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized staff and equipment. The best-known type of hospital is the general hospital, which has an emergency department. A district hospital typically is the major health care facility in its region, with large numbers of beds for intensive care and long-term care. Specialised hospitals include trauma centres, rehabilitation hospitals, children’s hospitals, seniors’ (geriatric) hospitals, and hospitals for dealing with specific medical needs such as psychiatric problems (see psychiatric hospital) and certain disease categories. Specialised hospitals can help reduce health care costs compared to general hospitals.
A teaching hospital combines assistance to people with teaching to medical students and nurses. The medical facility smaller than a hospital is generally called a clinic. Hospitals have a range of departments (e.g.: surgery and urgent care) and specialist units such ascardiology. Some hospitals have outpatient departments and some have chronic treatment units. Common support units include apharmacy, pathology, and radiology.
Hospitals are usually funded by the public sector, by health organisations (for profit or nonprofit), by health insurance companies, or by charities, including direct charitable donations. Historically, hospitals were often founded and funded by religious orders or charitable individuals and leaders.
Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease, illness,injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings. Health care is delivered by health professionals (providers or practitioners) in allied health professions, chiropractic, physicians, physician associates, dentistry, midwifery, nursing, medicine, optometry,pharmacy, psychology, and other health professions. It includes the work done in providing primary care, secondary care, and tertiary care, as well as in public health.
Medicine (British English i/ˈmɛdsᵻn/; American English i/ˈmɛdᵻsᵻn/) is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention ofdisease. The word medicine is derived from Latin medicus, meaning “a physician”. Medicine encompasses a variety of health carepractices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention andtreatment of illness. Contemporary medicine applies biomedical sciences, biomedical research, genetics, and medical technology todiagnose, treat, and prevent injury and disease, typically throughpharmaceuticals or surgery, but also through therapies as diverse aspsychotherapy, external splints and traction, medical devices, biologics, and ionizing radiation, amongst others.
Medicine has existed for thousands of years, during most of which it was an art (an area of skill and knowledge) frequently having connections to the religious and philosophical beliefs of local culture. For example, amedicine man would apply herbs and say prayers for healing, or an ancient philosopher and physician would applybloodletting according to the theories of humorism. In recent centuries, since the advent of modern science, most medicine has become a combination of art and science (both basic and applied, under the umbrella of medical science). While stitching technique for sutures is an art learned through practice, the knowledge of what happens at the cellular and molecular level in the tissues being stitched arises through science.
Prescientific forms of medicine are now known as traditional medicine and folk medicine. They remain commonly used with or instead of scientific medicine and are thus called alternative medicine. For example, evidence on the effectiveness of acupuncture is “variable and inconsistent” for any condition, but is generally safe when done by an appropriately trained practitioner. In contrast, treatments outside the bounds of safety and efficacy are termed quackery.
A dispensary is an office in a school, hospital, industrial plant, or other organization that dispenses medications, medical supplies, and in some cases even medical and dental treatment. In a traditional dispensary set-up, a pharmacist dispenses medication as per prescription or order form. The English term originated from the medieval Latin noun dispensaria and is cognate with the Latin verb dispensare, “to distribute”.
Health insurance is insurance against the risk of incurring medical expenses among individuals. By estimating the overall risk of health care and health system expenses, among a targeted group, an insurer can develop a routine finance structure, such as a monthly premium or payroll tax, to ensure that money is available to pay for the health care benefits specified in the insurance agreement. The benefit is administered by a central organization such as a government agency, private business, or not-for-profit entity. According to the Health Insurance Association of America, health insurance is defined as “coverage that provides for the payments of benefits as a result of sickness or injury. It includes insurance for losses from accident, medical expense, disability, or accidental death and dismemberment” (pg. 225).
The focus of public health intervention is to improve health and quality of life through prevention and treatment of disease and other physical and mental health conditions. This is done through surveillance of cases and health indicators, and through promotion of healthy behaviors. Examples of common public health measures include promotion of hand washing, breastfeeding, delivery of vaccinations, and distribution of condoms to control the spread of sexually transmitted diseases.
Apothecary /əˈpɒθᵻkəri/ is one term for a medical professional who formulates and dispenses materia medica to physicians, surgeons and patients. The modern pharmacist (also colloquially referred to as a chemist in British English) has taken over this role and in some languages and regions the word is still used to refer to a retail pharmacy or a pharmacist who owns one. The apothecaries’ investigation of herbal and chemical ingredients was a precursor to the modern sciences of chemistry and pharmacology.
In addition to dispensing medicines, the apothecary offered general medical advice and a range of services that are now performed by other specialist practitioners, such as surgeons and obstetricians. Apothecaries often operated through a retail shop which, in addition to ingredients for medicines, sold tobacco and patent medicines.
An establishment in which pharmacy (in the first sense) is practiced is called a pharmacy (this term is more common in the United States) or a chemist’s (which is more common in Great Britain). In the United States and Canada, drugstores commonly sell drugs, as well as miscellaneous items such as confectionery, cosmetics, office supplies, and magazines and occasionally refreshments and groceries.
snacks and drinks served as a light meal
activity that refreshes and recreates; activity that renews your health and spirits
[pl.] drinks and small amounts of food that are provided or sold to people in a public place or at a public event:
Light refreshments will be served during the break.
Tickets include the price of refreshments.
[U] (formal) food and drink:
In York we had a short stop for refreshment.
Can we offer you some refreshment?
a refreshment room / kiosk / tent
(humorous) liquid refreshment (= alcoholic drink)
[U] (formal) the fact of making sb feel stronger or less tired or hot:
a place to rest and find refreshment for mind and body
1. candy and other sweets considered collectively.
2. a confectioner’s shop.
3. the occupation and skills of a confectioner.
meds (informal): medicine; medication
Medicament is a word found in dictionaries but not much used. You are unlikely to hear it used in normal conversation.
Medicine (singular) in common usage is a liquid medication taken orally with a spoon. Often not very strong (not containing strong drugs).
Medicines (plural) is the general term for medications to cure illnesses, relieve pain and symptoms.
“Drug” (plural or singular) can also be used, it tends to refer to stronger medicines of the kind that are dangerous if over-dosed, and of course refers to illegal drugs (also called narcotics in the USA).
Another word is “remedy“, this is often something you can buy without going to a doctor,
from a pharmacy (pl. pharmacies). A chemist’s (pl. chemists). A chemist shop. A drugstore. A pharmacist’s (pl. pharmacists). A dispensary. An apothecary
#pharmacist a person whose job is to prepare medicines and sell or give them to the public in a shop/store or in a hospital. druggist (old-fashioned). dispensing chemist. Chemist (often used for a pharmacy)
Medical drugs are also known as pharmaceuticals, particularly in the industry that manufactures them.
#When asking for a medicine or drug when you are ill, it’s usual to simply ask for “something” for your illness, pain or whatever.
E.g. “Can you give me something for my headache”
rather than saying
“Can you give me / a drug / drugs / medicine / for my headache”.
MEDICAL ENGLISH VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT: MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS AND COLLOCATION