Vocabulary on Social Evils

Social Issues in India (causes, effects and solutions)

Major Social Issues: We have prepared a list of major social issues in India. They are briefly discussed below in the following order:

  1. Caste system
  2. Poverty
  3. Child labour
  4. Child marriage
  5. Illiteracy
  6. Low status of women
  7. Gender inequality at work
  8. Dowry system
  9. Sati practice
  10. Alcoholism
  11. Superstition
  12. Sanitation and cleanliness
  13. Religious conflicts
  14. Beggary
  15. Juvenile delinquency

1. Caste system: Hệ thống giai/đẳng cấp (tại Ấn Độ)

Introduction: Caste system (Social stratification) is a system of defining class or assigning status to individuals from the time of birth. In India, the caste system is mainly profession based. India has been a victim of caste system since ages.

The causes, effects and solutions of Caste system in India are discussed below:

Causes: The main reason behind the growth of Caste system in India is the assignment of caste based on job specialization. There were different types of jobs in the society which were done by the people based on their capability. This division of job based on specialization resulted into caste system.

Four classes of Caste system: The four classes includes:

  1. The Brahmins – the priestly class. They were mainly engaged in religious and priestly activities. They were also appointed as advisors to the Kings.
  2. The Kshatriyas – the warrior and ruler class. They were mainly engaged in warfare activities.
  3. The Vaishyas – the trader class. They were mainly engaged in business, agriculture, and trading activities.
  4. The Sudras – the lowest of the four traditional class engaged as domestic servants and laborers, etc.

Negative effects of Caste system: Caste system has many disadvantages such as:

  • Encourages untouchability,
  • Promotes Inequality,
  • Undemocratic in nature,
  • Fake differentiation in superiority and inferiority.
  • Increases gap between upper and lower caste people.

Caste system is also a danger towards the National integration of the country. Caste system is a major cause for many inhuman and immoral social practices such as untouchability, child marriage, sati system, prostitution, etc.

Sati (also spelled suttee) is an obsolete Hindu funeral custom where a widowimmolates herself on her husband’s pyre, or commits suicide in another fashionshortly after her husband’s death.


  • Education will help the people to become aware of the disadvantages of Caste system.
  • There is a need for widespread social change in favor of equality of human-beings. Caste system can be discouraged through social education in rural areas.
  • There should be special classes at schools that imparts value and moral education to the children.
  • Superstitious people are extremely fearful and discourage any change in social norms. Education will help shed away superstition, which in turn, will help shed casteism as well.
  • With better education and economic progress, people belonging to diverse caste get opportunity to mix and work together. Many of them become friends while working together on a project.

2. Poverty

Introduction: Poverty refers to a situation when people’s basic needs are not fulfilled. When people doesn’t have the necessary food to eat or clothes to wear or shelter to stay then its called poverty. Life becomes very difficult for people with income is below the poverty line (BPL).

The causes, effects and solutions for poverty in India are discussed below:

Causes: The major reasons or causes of poverty are:

  • People don’t get proper education which leads to poverty. People are poor because they are illiterate, and they are illiterate because they cannot afford education. Illiteracy and poverty stays side-by-side. They both are the cause and effect of each other.
  • In case where the resources and opportunities are limited and the population is high, there arises a situation of joblessness which ultimately leads to poverty.
  • When a large number of people live in poverty, there is limited scope for the development of country’s economy.
  • Some natural and environmental problems such as lack of rainfall, drought, etc. often lead to poverty. There are many other reasons also like caste system, unemployment, etc.

Effects: The negative effects of poverty are mentioned below:

  • Poor people will always have to depend on others to survive.
  • Low quality foods may leads to bad nutrition.
  • Poor people have less liberty for the choice of profession.
  • Poverty may affect the moral and self-esteem of people living in extreme hardship.
  • Poverty also results in building stress which ultimately affects the relationship of people.
  • The low standard of living prevails among poor people.

Solutions: The solutions for poverty are discussed below:

  • Poverty can be checked by increasing job opportunities. It will decrease the rate of unemployment which ultimately results in decrease of poverty in economy.
  • Government should take more steps towards charity, trusts and have some transparency while spending money in those social institutions.
  • There is a need for initiatives of paid leave (n) to the workers.
  • The education system should be reformed and initiatives should be taken to bring more children to schools.

3. Child labour

Introduction: Child labour is a system of involving children in any economic activity. Children at the age of playing engage themselves into economic activity for their family. Child labour can be seen throughout the country in a wide way.

The causes, effects and solution of Child labour are briefly mentioned below:

Causes: The major causes of child labour in India are:

  • Unemployment,
  • Poverty,
  • Illiteracy, and
  • Low standard of living.

If the above problems can be resolved from the Indian society, then the country will have less social issues.

Due to unemployment of the parents, children do not get proper education and are forced to get involved in child labour. Educated people are less likely to engage their child as child labour (or as child labourers). In general, educated people want to keep up a certain level of standard and live a respectable life. On the contrary, poor and illiterate people are not even aware of the evil effects of child labour.

Effects: The negative effects or major disadvantages of child labour include:

  • Child labour is an inhuman practice. The mental growth of the children engaged in child labour is checked.
  • Children get less time and opportunity to go to school. They are deprived from education which makes them illiterate.
  • Child labour obstructs personal growth. The standard of living of people remains low.
  • Child labour destroys their childhood.
  • Children are the future pillars of the economy and involving them into child labour will only make those pillars weak. Ultimately, child labour affects the country’s growth.

Solution: The main solution to child labour is:

  • Imparting education and knowledge to children.
  • If incomes of the parents can be increased then it is possible for the children’s to get education.
  • Government will have to take more steps towards proper enforcement of labour laws.
  • People who are employed and are above the poverty line should take steps towards replacing child workers with adult workers. It will benefit not only the society, but the country at large.

4. Child marriage

Introduction: Child marriage refers to the marriage of individuals below the prescribed limit of age. Marriage is to be considered legal as per the Indian Law, when the groom’s age is 21 and (or) above (over, older) and bride’s age is 18 and above.

Though, child marriage has caused problems to both and boys and girls, the most severe victims of the evil practice are the girls.

The causes, effects and solutions for the social problem of child marriage are given below:

Causes: The causes or the main reason behind the child marriage is the poor economic condition of the family of the marriage parties.

Besides there are other reasons also for child marriage like illiteracy, providing security to their daughters by marrying them to secured person, child trafficking, etc.

secured(adj): financially sound

Negative effects of child marriage: The negative effects of child marriage include the following:

  • Due to child marriage, the girls become pregnant at an early age. Since their bodies are not properly developed to have kids, it may lead to early maternal death. In many of the cases, the infant baby’s health doesn’t seem good.
  • Child marriage also leads to illiteracy and poverty. A girl who is married at an early age is deprived of opportunities for education and personal growth.
  • Due to less compatibility and understanding, relationship between the couples hampers. (misuse of the verb ‘hamper’!?)

Solution: Education is the only and the best way to stop child marriage. Educated people from society should raise voice against child marriage.

Gender equality and women education is very important to stop the evil practice of child marriage. The girls become extremely dependent upon her parents because of lack of education. As such, she is not in a position to speak against the will of her parents. If a girl gets equal opportunity to get educated, then she will be in a better position to decide, what that is best for her future.

Government should take steps to enforce the laws on child marriage. The problem of child marriage can be solved by raising awareness about the disadvantages of child marriage.

5. Illiteracy

Introduction: Illiteracy refers to the inability to read and/or write. The problem of illiteracy is a major social issue in India. The problem has spread through-out the country in a wide way (misuse of words again!?). It is one of the most dangerous obstacles in (to,for) the economy’s growth.

This huge open ditch forms the biggest obstacle on the course.

The release of prisoners remains an obstacle in the path of a peace agreement.

So far, we have managed to overcome all the obstacles placed in our path.

Lack of childcare provision can be a major obstacle for women wishing to work.

A lack of qualifications can be a major obstacle to finding a job.

The major causes, negative effects and solutions of the problem of Illiteracy in India are discussed below:

Reason: The major reasons of illiteracy in India are discussed below:

  • Since many adults in India are illiterate, they don’t understand the importance of getting education for their children.
  • Due to the problem of unemployment and poverty, children get little opportunity for proper education.
  • Many people stay illiterate due to some physical or mental disabilities.
  • Other social evils like caste system, gender inequality also cause illiteracy.


  • One of the major cause for crimes is illiteracy. Due to illiteracy issue, rates of crime are gradually increasing and health, productivity and growth of the country is gradually decreasing.
  • Most illiterate people are unaware of the benefits of maintaining cleanliness and hygiene.
  • Illiterate people find it very difficulty to secure a good job and earn livelihood.

to earn (gets, make) a livelihood: the financial means whereby one lives.

Solution:The only and the best way to eradicate illiteracy from the society are by education.

The scheme for mid-day meals at schools is a welcome step.

Government should take steps to promote free education for the backward class(es) (n) of the society in government schools (also known as state school, or ‘Trường công lập‘ in Vietnamese.)

#Private school là trường tư đóng tiền, có tiền thì cứ cho con vô học. Còn trường công là state school.

#Trường công của bên Anh không phải là public schools. Public school là dành cho giới thượng lưu và hoàng gia. Public schools là private schools mà còn hơn thế nữa cơ, không phải có tiền là được vô đâu. Public schools chỉ dành cho boys từ 13-18 tuổi. Các hoàng tử và hầu hết các chính trị gia đều là dân public. (Scotland hình như khác 1 chút về public schools). non-government schools. Trường dự bị đại học (College-preparatory Schools).

Government also look at the matter that people get fair payment for their work. Appropriate steps should be taken to create more employment opportunities for adults, so that they can educate their children by sending them to school.

Other Backward Class (OBC) is a collective term used by the Government of India to classify castes which are socially and educationally disadvantaged.

6. Low status of women (Thái độ kì thị đối với phái nữ)

Introduction: Low status of women refers to the inferior position of women (in comparison to men) in the society. This reflects the narrow mindset of the society. It is seen all over the country, but widely prevalent in the backward areas.


age/racial/sex/sexual discrimination (= because of somebody’s age, race or sex)

discrimination against the elderly

discrimination in favour of the young

discrimination on the grounds of race, gender, or sexual orientation


The causes, negative impact, and solutions of the problem of low status of women are briefly discussed below:

Causes:Narrow mindset of the society is the main reasons behind this problem. Women in India are considered inferior than men for ages (or ‘since ages ago’,but don’t use ‘since ages’ because ages is a period of time). A large part of the society believes that men are more capable to earn more than their women. It is widely seen that the male members of the family try to control the activities of the female members, which leads to the low status of women.

Negative impact: The negative impact of the lower status of women are:

  • Women do not get the adequate chance to do something to contribute to the society.
  • Since the status of women in society is low, people want a boy child instead of a girl child. This intensifies the problem of female foeticide.

Solution: The solution to the problem is:

  • The empowerment of women is of utmost importance for solving the problem.
  • Awareness must be created to change the narrow mindset of the society. Campaigns must be launched to acknowledge the role and contribution of women in the society.
  • Education can also help to solve the problem of low status of women in the society.
  • Mass-media campaigns should be promoted.

7. Gender inequality at work:

Introduction: Inequality at work refers to any type of discrimination in working environment based on caste, gender, race, color, etc. But gender inequality at work means discrimination or unequal treatment between male and female workers.

Causes: The main reason behind the issue of gender inequality at work is the mindset and culture.

The ego of male members prevents the female members to enjoy equal position at work places. People also do this because of un-awareness.

Impact and effects: The main impact of gender inequality at work is that society gets shrink and deprived of the minds of the female worker. It also gives rise to low status of women issue in the society.

Solution: The solution for social issue of gender inequality at work is in the hands of people themselves. People should start training and impart proper education for gender equality.

People should also change their perception that women will get less salary in comparison to men.

For that, people should introduce successful business women as the role model at their workplaces.

8. Dowry system

Introduction: Dowry is one of the most evil practices that are prevalent in the Indian society. Dowry system is actually the transfer of money, property and other valuable assets of bride’s family to the groom’s family on the eve of marriage.

Reason: There are several reasons of prevailing dowry system in the society like:

  • Tradition of asking for dowry at the time of marriage.
  • The greed among the family of groom for quick and easy money.
  • People also ask for dowry for maintaining status.

Disadvantages: The major disadvantages of Dowry system in the society is:

  • The bride’s family who generally belong to middle and low-class has to face the bitter-side of it. Bride’s family spend lavishly during the marriage. Because of this social evil, some families lose huge money.
  • Parents often take loan for their daughter’s marriage.
  • In many cases, by watching the poor situation of their parents, bride becomes mentally affected.
  • Sometimes, the mental torture due to dowry leads to suicidal tendencies.
  • Many cases of dowry deaths have been seen in past years.
  • Emotional torture and divorce are other evil effects of dowry system.

Solution: The solution to stop the practice of this evil system is in our hands only.

  • People should stop discrimination between a boy and a girl.
  • Girls should also be allowed to have their education and proper knowledge.
  • Awareness must be created and for these people with the help of media.
  • Last, but not the least, parents should change the thoughts of dowry from their mind and children should stand against their family for doing this.

9. Sati System (Sati Practice)

Introduction: Sati system or pratha is one of the cruelest, evil, inhuman and immoral social practices prevailing in our country.

Sati system refers to the act of committing suicide by the widowed women on the funeral pyre of his husband.  This is an inhuman act.

In 1987, Roop Kanwar committed sati at the age of 18. After this incident, both the State and the Central Government enacted acts to abolish the Sati system.

Disadvantages: The main disadvantages are:

  • Sati System in itself is an inhuman practice.
  • Women are deprived of their basic right to live their life.
  • Sati system also shows the domination of men over the women.
  • Sati system reduces the self-respect of women and brings down the status of women in the society.

Causes: The causes behind the Sati system are:

  • To maintain the status: As people of high caste were not allowed to marry with low-caste, so after the death of her husband, she was burned alive only to save the status
  • Sati was also committed to save her sexuality with the other member of the society.
  • Sati was also practiced by women to show her love and devotion towards her husband.
  • In the backward areas where widows were treated as untouchables were forced to commit sati.

Solution: The solutions for the evil practice of sati are:

  • Educating the people through mass communication.
  • Bringing a change in the perspective of the people that a widow person cannot marry with anyone.

Government has already enacted the Sati Prevention Law. Sati Practice is illegal in India.  The evil is rapidly diminishing from the Indian Society. However, awareness has to be created to stop the sati practice completely.

10. Alcoholism

Introduction: Alcoholism is also known as Alcohol-use-disorder. It is a general term for the problems of uncontrollable consumption of alcohol. It deteriorates the health of the drinker and in medical term, it is considered a disease.

Causes: There are a numerous causes or reasons for alcohol dependence or addiction of alcohol or alcoholism, such as:

  • Childhood incident which affects badly (trauma),
  • Peer pressure,
  • Difficult upbringing and childhood,
  • Easy availability of alcohol,
  • Showing off in front of friends,
  • Spending most of the times with different types of people who are already addicted to alcohol.

Disadvantages: The disadvantage of alcoholism is far more than imagined. They are:

  • It hampers the drinker in both ways, physically and mentally.
  • Alcoholism can cause cancer in any parts of the body mainly in kidney, liver, and stomach etc.
  • It also hampers the digestive system of the body.
  • Alcoholism can also create depression and behavioral change. This can affect his personal life and his relationships with friends and families.

Solution: The solutions are:

  • There are many institutions who are working behind the solving the problem of alcohol addiction and Government is also not far behind in this.
  • Detoxification of the body,
  • Establishment of rehabilitation and counselling centres for alcohol addicted patients,

It is very important that patient is willing to quit the habit of alcohol. Otherwise any detoxification or rehabilitation also will not able to solve the problem of alcohol addiction.

11. Superstition

Introduction: Superstition refers to the irrational beliefs of supernatural forces. Superstition is one of the major social issues affecting the entire country.

It’s a belief of human beings that there are some supernatural causes behind the bad events. Science doesn’t believe in this type of supernatural causality because science always tries to give scientific explanation for every event. But, deep down inside human beings have their own belief.

There are many superstitions prevailing in the country. Human beings have the tendency to believe bad before the good.

Reason: The main reason behind superstitions is:

  • Fear: Fear is the main obstacles for everything. Superstition arises due to human fear.
  • Lack of Knowledge: Basically superstition arises due to lack of knowledge.
  • Religion, tradition and social practices are others causes of superstition.

Disadvantages: The major disadvantages of being superstitious are:

  • Fear: People start to think less broadly and always develop constant fear in mind. This fear affects not only the individual but also his family and society.
  • Waste time and energy: People waste of much time and efforts.
  • People stop for few seconds whenever they sneeze. All these arise due to human fear and imagination.

Solution: The main solution is to get knowledge and education because knowing nothing causes fear in mind which ultimately arise superstition.

By adjusting or gaining knowledge, mind can develop the reason behind the occurrence of superstition and one can understand very well that these things doesn’t affect anybody’s life.

Also by being always positive, one can get rid of those superstitions.

12. Sanitation and cleanliness

Introduction: Sanitation and cleanliness is a basic problem and one of the important social issues of our country. People should clean their areas and take care of personal hygiene to stay healthy and away from any diseases.

People should clean the areas of keeping food; clean their area of staying to promote cleanliness. People should maintain adequate sewage disposal system so that the public health is not put at risk.

Disadvantages: There are many casualties of not having sanitation and proper cleanliness.

  • People suffer from various diseases such as diarrhea, malnutrition, dengue, malaria and many more.
  • It also suffers children’s development.

Reason: The major reason behind this is the carelessness and laziness of people themselves. The people themselves create the problem of dirt and unhealthy environment.

People think of their own only and do not think of others. People do not mind to throw garbage in open areas which may negatively affect the environment.

Solution: The solution is in the hands of the people itself.

  • People have to start to make their area clean and stay healthy.
  • People should make a proper area for sanitation so that public health will not suffer.
  • Mass awareness programmes are already initiated by different institutions, organisations and government bodies to save human race.

13. Religious conflicts

Introduction: Religious conflicts are the most harmful social issues of today. Sometimes violence, war, conflict, etc. arises because of religious fanaticism.

Causes: The causes are briefly discussed as follows:

  • Difference in beliefs: People belonging to different religions have difference in their beliefs. This difference often leads to conflict.
  • Poor upbringing: The religious belief of a person has its root in his childhood. People learn what they see. If their ancestors were intolerant towards other religions, then they also do the same thing. Human beings themselves create religious violence.
  • Lack of education: Illiterate people can be easily mis-guided by people who want to spread violence in the name of religion.
  • The mindset of some people who think other religions as small often leads to communal conflict. These people try to dominate over people of other religion.

Negative effects: Sometimes conflicts between communities leads to violence and crimes. People become fearful and it affects the overall progress of the country. The lack of communal harmony in society leads to disunity.

Solutions: The solution for religious violence is in the hands of the people only. People should gain proper knowledge and develop better understanding. By removing the thoughts of cruelty, one can correctly judge what’s right or wrong. Awareness must be created and for this media will be very useful.

14. Beggary

Introduction: Beggary is another social problem in our country. People who are in extreme situation of need and poverty are called beggars. The state of being a beggar is called beggary.

Causes: There are many causes behind the beggary problem in India. Some of the reasons behind beggary are poverty, unemployment, illiteracy, social customs, physical disability, mental state, disease and many more.

Impacts and effects: The main disadvantages of beggary is that

  • Beggars largely depend on what they get from the people and this is in fact a big problem because they start to depend totally on this and stop finding any other source of income.
  • Now, they have become burden to the society and they in fact forcefully made their children to do the same.
  • The cruelest part of beggary is that they sometimes allow doing anything to their own body for money. They are sometimes forced to cut their hands or legs.

Solution: Government has to take large initiatives to remove the problem of beggary from the society like providing job security, recruiting more employees in the Governmental sectors and many more. Beggary problem can also be in control if the children who are begging can be put in the Govt. schools for education because education is the main key to eradicate any social problem.

15. Juvenile delinquency

Introduction: Juvenile delinquency is also termed as Teenage Crime. Basically, juvenile delinquency refers to the crimes committed by minors. The crimes by teenage boys or girls are generally done without having proper knowledge of it as they know very little about the world.

Negative effects:  The crimes by minors affects not only the children but to the family  and the society. Children’s are the future generations of the country.  Education of the children is hampered and the status and reputation of the family also goes down. People become less secured and there is always a sense of tension and distress.

Causes: There are numerous reasons behind Juvenile delinquency, such as:

  • Lack of knowledge: They know very little about the outside world. They sometimes commit crime unknowingly.
  • Trauma: Trauma of any childhood or teenage incident may have negative effect on mind.
  • Violent films and movies: Watching any stuff like murder, violence, etc. may again negatively affect the mind of the teenager.
  • Family Disturbance also cause for the crime.

Solutions: There are many organisations who deal with the problem of Juvenile delinquency. They are established to help those children who are involved in it. They increase their thinking ability and decision-making skills. They start to understand the meaning of Juvenile delinquency and the results of it. There are rehabilitation centres and consultancies also run by the Government who treat those children and make them a good person.


monks go out on their begging rounds in the early morning,

to donate food

offer them rice and vegetables

receive beneficial karma from their acts of generosity

and people support the monasteries

monasteries: the residence of a religious community

much like other societies give to libraries and other social agencies.






Corruption (Tham Nhũng)


Bribe(n,v): payment made to a person in a position of trust to corrupt his judgment. make illegal payments to in exchange for favors or influence.

=buy/pay off


extortion: hành vi tống tiền

1. an exorbitant charge
2. unjust exaction (as by the misuse of authority)
3. the felonious act of extorting money (as by threats of violence)


#accountability (of somebody) (to somebody): [uncountable](formal) >< unaccountable: the fact of being responsible for your decisions or actions and expected to explain them when you are asked

#accountable [not usually before noun] (adj) responsible for your decisions or actions and expected to explain them when you are asked.

The state spends taxpayers’ money and should be held accountable.

accountable to somebody

Politicians are ultimately accountable to the voters.

accountable for something

Someone must be held accountable for the killings.


accountancy (n) the work or profession of an accountant

It had taken considerable ‘creative accountancy’ on my part to produce a set of figures that showed us making any profit at all.

the members of the different professional accountancy bodies

accountant: a person whose job is to keep or check financial accounts

chief accountant (kế toán trưởng).

the accountant’s report.


#ratification : the act or process of making an agreement officially valid by voting for or signing it.

The agreement is subject to ratification by the Senate.


The treaty was ratified by all the member states.


When an official of a government or business is acting dishonestly, we say that this person is corrupt.
Corruption is a serious problem in many countries around the world. There are several different kinds of corrupt practices, including bribes, kickbacks, nepotism, and embezzlement (hành vi, việc làm tham ô).
A bride is a payment of money or some other benefit in exchange for a decision that would not otherwise be made. For example, an accused criminal might bribe a judge so that the judge would make a decision of not “guilty”. Another example is that a business owner might bribe a government official so that the official would allow the construction of very unsafe buildings.
A kickback is similar to a bribe, except that the official received some part of the money in a dishonest business deal. For example, government sometimes decide which company should build a road. A company might offer money to a government official who makes the decision, so that this company will be chosen, even if it’s not the best company for the job.
Nepotism happens when an official unfairly gives advantages to his or her relatives. For example, a government official might hire a brother or sister to do a job, even though other people would be much better qualified for that job. Of course, all of us want to help our relatives, but it is wrong to do this at the expense of the public.
Embezzlement happens when an official secretly steal some money from a company or government. For example, a manager at a company might secretly move some of the company’s money to his or her own bank account, or that manager might lie about his or her expenses in order to receive more payment from the company.
Corruption has very bad effects on people, in several ways. Sometimes, it can lead to very dangerous situations. One example of this is when unsafe construction projects are approved by officials who have been bribed. Another example is when criminals are freed as a result of bribes. Also, a country’s economy can be damaged by corruption. For example, if companies must pay bribes in order to do business, then they may decide to leave the country. Also, if people’s tax money is stolen by corrupt officials, this makes the people poorer. In addition, when company officials are corrupt, it makes the company less able to compete with other companies.
How can corruption be stopped? An important step is for each person to decide not to act in ways that are corrupt. People must agree to take this problem seriously. Also, each company and each government must have strict rules about corruption. It must be very clear to all employees-from the lowest to the highest-that corruption is totally unacceptable.


Transparency International (TI, Tổ chức Minh bạch Quốc tế) has published the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI, chỉ số nhận thức tham nhũng) since 1995, annually ranking countries “by their perceived (được công chúng nhận thức là có tồn tại) levels of corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys.”[1] The CPI generally defines corruption as “the misuse of public power for private benefit” (“lạm dụng chức vụ công để hưởng tư lợi”).[2] The CPI measures perception of corruption due to the difficulty of measuring absolute levels of corruption.[8] The CPI currently ranks 178 countries “on a scale from 100 (very clean) to 0 (highly corrupt).”[3]

A study published in 2003 found a “very strong significant correlation” between the Corruption Perceptions Index and two other proxies for corruption: Black Market activity and overabundance of regulation. All three metrics also had a highly significant correlation with real gross domestic product per capita (RGDP/Cap). The Corruption Perceptions Index correlation with RGDP/Cap was the strongest.[9] (Note that a lower index on this scale reflects greater corruption, so that countries with higher RGDPs generally had less corruption.)

Research papers published in 2007 and 2008 examined the economic consequences of corruption perception, as defined by the CPI. The researchers found a correlation between a higher CPI and higher long-term economic growth,[19] as well as an increase in GDP growth of 1.7% for every unit increase in a country’s CPI score.[20] Also shown was a power-law dependence linking higher CPI score to higher rates of foreign investment in a country.


United Nations Convention against Corruption

The United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC, Công ước Liên Hiệp Quốc phòng chống tham nhũng) is

a multilateral convention negotiated by members of the United Nations.

It is the first global legally binding international anti-corruption instrument.[1]

In its 71 Articles divided into 8 Chapters,

implement several anti-corruption measures

which may affect their laws, institutions and practices.

These measures aim at preventing corruption, including domestic and foreign bribery, embezzlement, trading in influence and money laundering.

providing effective legal mechanisms for asset recovery, technical assistance and information exchange,

Signatures, ratifications and entry into force

UNCAC was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 31 October 2003

It was opened for signature in Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico, from 9–11 December 2003 and thereafter at UN headquarters in New York City.

It was signed by 140 countries.

Joined the United Nations Convention against corruption to ratify new members


have recognized the far-reaching impact of corruption and economic crime

that undermine the value of democracy, sustainable development, and rule of law.

International action against corruption

has progressed from general consideration and declarative statements to legally binding agreements.

such as trading in influence, abuse of function

the recovery of stolen assets,

pursue the assets of former leaders and other officials

accused or found to have engaged in corruption.

anti-corruption conventions

certain manifestations of corruption.

Conference of the States Parties

Pursuant to article 63 of UNCAC, a Conference of the States Parties (CoSP) to UNCAC was established

to achieve the objectives set forth in UNCAC,

and to promote and review its implementation.

UNODC acts as the secretariat to the CoSP.

besides regularly calling States Parties and signatories to adapt their laws and regulations

to bring them into conformity with the provisions of UNCAC

the CoSP has adopted resolutions

and has mandated UNODC to implement them,

subsidiary bodies

meet regularly in the intersessional period.

to establish an appropriate and effective mechanism

to assist in the review of the implementation of UNCAC.

An inter-governmental working group was established

decided to take into account a balanced geographical approach,

to avoid any adversarial or punitive elements,

to establish clear guidelines

decided to abolish the Working Group on Technical Assistance

and to fold its mandate into the work of the Implementation Review Group.

to further explore good practices in this field.

side events,

Global Forum for Fighting Corruption and Safeguarding Integrity

a Youth Forum.

It also reiterated its support for

with respect to extradition and mutual legal assistance.

In addition to its main agenda, the CoSP hosted 19 side events,


Measures and provisions[edit]

UNCAC covers five main areas: preventive measures, criminalization and law enforcement, international cooperation, asset recovery, and technical assistance and information exchange. It includes both mandatory and non-mandatory provisions.

General provisions (Chapter I, Articles 1–4)[edit]

the promotion of integrity and accountability within each country

Transnational Organized Crime (UNTOC),

In accordance with Article 2 of the UN Charter,

national sovereignty of the States Parties.,

Preventive measures (Các biện pháp ngăn chặn)

preventive policies, such as

the establishment of anti-corruption bodies

and enhanced transparency

in the financing of election campaigns

disseminate knowledge

and must be independent, adequately resourced

and have properly trained staff.

recruitment based on merit.

codes of conduct,

disciplinary measures (biện pháp kỉ luật)

Transparency and accountability in the management of public finances must also be promoted, and specific requirements are established for the prevention of corruption in the particularly critical areas of the public sector, such as the judiciary and public procurement. Preventing corruption also requires an effort from all members of society at large. For these reasons, UNCAC calls on countries to promote actively the involvement of civil society, and to raise public awareness of corruption and what can be done about it. The requirements made for the public sector also apply to the private sector – it too is expected to adopt transparent procedures and codes of conduct.[23]

Criminalization and law enforcement (Chapter III, Articles 15–44)[edit]

Chapter III calls for parties to establish or maintain a series of specific criminal offences including not only long-established crimes such as bribery and embezzlement, but also conducts not previously criminalized in many states, such as trading in influence and other abuses of official functions. The broad range of ways in which corruption has manifested itself in different countries and the novelty of some of the offences pose serious legislative and constitutional challenges, a fact reflected in the decision of the Ad Hoc Committee to make some of the provisions either optional (“…shall consider adopting…”) or subject to domestic constitutional or other fundamental requirements (“…subject to its constitution and the fundamental principles of its legal system…”).[24] Specific acts that parties must criminalize include

  • active bribery of a national, international or foreign public officials
  • passive bribery of a national public official
  • embezzlement of public funds

Other mandatory crimes include obstruction of justice, and the concealment, conversion or transfer of criminal proceeds (money laundering). Sanctions extend to those who participate in and may extend to those who attempt to commit corruption offences.[25] UNCAC thus goes beyond previous instruments of this kind that request parties to criminalize only basic forms of corruption. Parties are encouraged – but not required – to criminalize, inter alia, passive bribery of foreign and international public officials, trading in influence, abuse of function, illicit enrichment, private sector bribery and embezzlement, and the concealment of illicit assets.

Furthermore, parties are required to simplify rules pertaining to evidence of corrupt behavior by, inter alia, ensuring that obstacles that may arise from the application of bank secrecy laws are overcome. This is especially important, as corrupt acts are frequently very difficult to prove in court. Particularly important is also the introduction of the liability of legal persons. In the area of law enforcement, UNCAC calls for better cooperation between national and international bodies and with civil society. There is a provision for the protection of witnesses, victims, expert witnesses and whistle blowers to ensure that law enforcement is truly effective.

Russia ratified the convention in 2006, but failed to include article 20, which criminalizes “illicit enrichment.” In March 2013, the Communist Party of the Russian Federationsubmitted a petition with 115,000 signatures to the State Duma in favour of doing so.[26] In 2015, however, no such law was yet in effect in Russia.

International cooperation (Chapter IV, Articles 43–49)[edit]

Under Chapter IV of UNCAC, States Parties are obliged to assist one another in every aspect of the fight against corruption, including prevention, investigation, and the prosecution of offenders. Cooperation takes the form of extradition, mutual legal assistance, transfer of sentences persons and criminal proceedings, and law enforcement cooperation. Cooperation in civil and administrative matters is also encouraged. Based on Chapter IV, UNCAC itself can be used as a basis for extradition, mutual legal assistance and law enforcement with respect to corruption-related offences. “Dual criminality”, which is a requirement that the relevant offence shall be criminalized in both the requesting and requested country, is considered fulfilled irrespective of whether the same terminology or category of offense is used in both jurisdictions. In case of a request for assistance involving non-coercive measures, States Parties are required to provide assistance even when dual criminality is absent subject only to the basic concepts of their legal systems. Chapter IV also contains other innovative provisions designed to facilitate international cooperation. For example, States Parties that use UNCAC as a basis for extradition shall not consider corruption-related offences as political ones; assistance can also be provided in relation to offences for which legal persons can be held responsible; and bank secrecy cannot be cited as a ground to refuse a request for assistance. In order to ensure speedy and efficient cooperation, each State Party is required to designate a central authority responsible for receiving MLA requests. Overall, Chapter IV provides a broad and flexible platform for international cooperation. However, its provisions do not exhaust all international cooperation issues covered by UNCAC, thus the purposes of UNCAC and provisions of other chapters also need to be taken into consideration.[27]

Asset recovery (Chapter V, Articles 51–59)[edit]

The agreement on asset recovery is considered a major breakthrough and many observers claim that it is one of the reasons why so many developing countries have signed UNCAC.[28] Asset recovery is indeed a very important issue for many developing countries where high-level corruption has plundered the national wealth. Reaching an agreement on this Chapter involved intensive negotiations, as the legitimate interests of countries wishing to recover illicit assets had to be reconciled with the legal and procedural safeguards of the countries from which assistance will be sought.[29] Generally, in the course of the negotiations, countries seeking to recover assets sought to establish presumptions that would make clear their ownership of the assets and give priority for return over other means of disposal. Countries from which the return was likely to be sought, on the other hand, had concerns about the language that might have compromised basic human rights and procedural protections associated with criminal liability and the freezing, seizure, forfeiture and return of such assets.

Chapter V of UNCAC establishes asset recovery as a “fundamental principle” of the Convention. The provisions on asset recovery lay a framework, in both civil and criminal law, for tracing, freezing, forfeiting and returning funds obtained through corrupt activities. The requesting state will in most cases receive the recovered funds as long as it can prove ownership. In some cases, the funds may be returned directly to individual victims.

If no other arrangement is in place, States Parties may use the Convention itself as a legal basis. Article 54(1)(a) of UNCAC provides that: “Each State Party (shall)… take such measures as may be necessary to permit its competent authorities to give effect to an order of confiscation issued by a court of another state party” Indeed, Article 54(2)(a) of UNCAC also provides for the provisional freezing or seizing of property where there are sufficient grounds for taking such actions in advance of a formal request being received.[30]

Recognizing that recovering assets once transferred and concealed is an exceedingly costly, complex and an all-too-often unsuccessful process, this Chapter also incorporates elements intended to prevent illicit transfers and generate records that can be used where illicit transfers eventually have to be traced, frozen, seized and confiscated (Article 52). The identification of experts who can assist developing countries in this process is also included as a form of technical assistance (Article 60(5)).

Technical assistance and information exchange (Chapter VI, Articles 60–62)[edit]

Chapter VI of UNCAC is dedicated to technical assistance, meaning support offered to developing and transition countries in the implementation of UNCAC. The provisions cover training, material and human resources, research, and information sharing. UNCAC also calls for cooperation through international and regional organizations (many of which already have established anti-corruption programmes), research efforts, and the contribution of financial resources both directly to developing countries and countries with economies in transition, and to the UNODC.

Mechanisms for implementation (Chapter VII, Articles 63–64)[edit]

Chapter VII deals with international implementation through the CoSP and the UN Secretariat.

Final provisions (Chapter VIII, Articles 65 – 71)[edit]

The final provisions are similar to those found in other UN treaties. Key provisions ensure that UNCAC requirements are to be interpreted as minimum standards, which States Parties are free to exceed with measures “more strict or severe” than those set out in specific provisions; and the two Articles governing signature, ratification and the coming into force of the Convention.[24]

Implementation of the UNCAC and monitoring mechanism[edit]

In accordance with Article 63(7) of UNCAC, “the Conference shall establish, if it deems necessary, any appropriate mechanism or body to assist in the effective implementation of the Convention”.[31] At its first session, the CoSP established an open-ended intergovernmental expert group to make recommendations to the Conference on the appropriate mechanism. A voluntary “Pilot Review Programme”, which was limited in scope, was initiated to offer adequate opportunity to test possible methods to review the implementation of UNCAC, with the overall objective to evaluate efficiency and effectiveness of the tested mechanism(s) and to provide to the CoSP information on lessons learnt and experience acquired, thus enabling the CoSP to make informed decisions on the establishment of an appropriate mechanism for reviewing the implementation of UNCAC. The CoSP at its third session, held in Doha in November 2009, adopted Resolution 3/1 on the review of the implementation of the Convention, containing the terms of reference of an Implementation Review Mechanism (IRM). It established a review mechanism aimed at assisting countries to meet the objectives of UNCAC through a peer review process. The IRM is intended to further enhance the potential of the UNCAC, by providing the means for countries to assess their level of implementation through the use of a comprehensive self-assessment checklist, the identification of potential gaps and the development of action plans to strengthen the implementation of UNCAC domestically. UNODC serves as the secretariat to the review mechanism.[12]

The Terms of Reference of the IRM specify that each review phase is composed of two review cycles of five years.

An initial desk review

to conduct broad consultations

all relevant stakeholders

Active dialogue (đối thoại tích cực) between the country

reviewers (nhà phê bình sách, phim…)

Country visits (các chuyến công du) or

joint meetings

may be made public.

#As of 4 October 2012, 157 countries are involved in… (For example on 4 October 2012,…)

as of/from: starting from a particular time or date.

As of next month, all the airline’s fares will be going up.


UNCAC Coalition of Civil Society Organisations

committed to promoting the ratification, implementation and monitoring of UNCAC.

(cam kết sẽ phát huy

It aims to mobilize broad civil society support for UNCAC and to facilitate strong civil society action at national, regional and international levels in support of UNCAC. The Coalition is open to all organizations and individuals committed to these goals. The breadth of UNCAC means that its framework is relevant for a wide range of CSOs, including groups working in the areas of human rights, labour rights, governance, economic development, environment and private sector accountability.


Ratification of UNCAC, while essential, is only the first step. Fully implementing its provisions presents significant challenges.

innovative areas

policy guidance and technical assistance

to ensure the effective implementation

many developing countries have identified technical assistance needs.

to ensure the full and effective incorporation of the provisions of UNCAC into domestic legal systems and, above all, into the reality of daily life.


Forced Marriage (Cưỡng hôn)

Child marriage (Tảo hôn)
Child Betrothal
Early marriage









Social Issues in India (causes, effects and solutions)

Do you study at a private school or public school? Nope, I study at a grammar school. Tìm hiểu hệ thống trường học phổ thông tại Anh (UK School System)

Public schools của nước Anh và giáo dục Anh


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