Chemistry’hy.drate /ˌkɑːrboʊˈhaɪdreɪt/ noun 1 (also informal carb) [countable, uncountable] a substance such as sugar or starch that consists of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Carbohydrates in food provide the body with energy and heat. 2 carbohydrates (also informal carbs) [plural] foods such as bread, potatoes and rice that contain a lot of carbohydrate. I’m trying to cut down on carbohydrates.

tes.’tos.te.rone /te ˈstɑː stə roʊn/ noun a hormone (= chemical substance produced in the body) that causes men to develop the physical and sexual features that are characteristic of the male body

pro.’ /prəˈdʒestəroʊn/ noun [uncountable] a hormone produced in the bodies of women and female animals which prepares the body to become pregnant and is also used in contraception

‘oes.tro.gen (BrE) (NAmE ‘es.tro.gen) BrE /ˈiːstrədʒən/ NAmE/ˈestrədʒən/ noun  [uncountable] a hormone produced in women’s ovaries that causes them to develop the physical and sexual features that are characteristic of females and that causes them to prepare their body to have babies

molecule /ˈmɑːlɪkjuːl/ molecular  /məˈlekjələr/ adjective [only before noun]

atom /ˈætəm/ atomic /əˈtɑːmɪk/

ammonia /əˈməʊniə $ -ˈmoʊ-/ NH3 amoniac

a‧’mi‧no ”ac‧id /əˌmiːnəʊ ˈæsəd, əˌmaɪ- $ -noʊ-/ đừng đọc ‘á sợt d’ mà đọc là ‘á sịt d’.

as‧phalt /ˈæsfælt $ ˈæsfɒːlt/ hắc ín nhựa làm dường cho xe chậy

a’moebic ”dysentery (a’mebic)/əˈmiːbɪk//ˈdɪsənteri/

DNA finger.printing: ge’netic finger.printing: the method of finding the particular pattern of genes in an individual person, particularly to identify sb or find out if sb has committed a crime.

geˌnetic ˈfingerprint: noun: dấu vân tay.

DNA /ˌdiː en ˈeɪ/ [uncountable] (chemistry) deoxyribonucleic acid (the chemical in the cells of animals and plants that carries genetic information and is a type of nucleic acid). nu.’cle.ic ‘a.cid /nuːˌkliːɪk ˈæsɪd//nuːˌkleɪɪk ˈæsɪd/.

methane BrE /ˈmiːθeɪn/NAmE /ˈmeθeɪn/ CH4: mê than.

‘methanol BrE /ˈmeθənɒl/NAmE /ˈmeθənɔːl//ˈmeθənoʊl/ CH3OH: mê tha non.


for.’ /fɔːr ˈmæl dɪ haɪd/ PHOÓC MÔN: 1 (symb. CH2O or H-CHO) a gas with a strong smell. 2. (also technical ‘ /ˈfɔːrməlɪn/) a liquid made by mixing formaldehyde and water, used for preserving biological specimens/sample, making plastics and as a disinfectant/ˌdɪsɪnˈfektənt/.

In view of its widespread use, toxicity, and volatility, formaldehyde poses a significant danger to human health. described formaldehyde as “known to be a human carcinogen” (chất gây ung thư).

Contaminant in food

2005 Indonesia food scare  and 2007 Vietnam food scare (cuộc khủng hoảng vệ sinh an toàn thực phẩm) regarding the addition of formaldehyde to foods to extend shelf life. found foods with formaldehyde.  Besides using formaldehyde, they also used borax, but not in combination. contained 10 parts per million of formaldehyde. the owner of two noodle factories was arrested for using formaldehyde in noodles. 50 kg of formaldehyde was confiscated. Foods known to be contaminated include noodles, salted fish, and tofu; chicken and beer are also rumored to be contaminated. formaldehyde is still used illegally as a preservative in foods, which exposes people to formaldehyde ingestion. In humans, the ingestion of formaldehyde has been shown to cause vomiting, abdominal pain, dizziness, and in extreme cases can cause death. Testing for formaldehyde is by blood and/or urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Other methods include infrared detection, gas detector tubes, etc., of which HPLC is the most sensitive. was frequently added by US milk plants to milk bottles as a method of pasteurization due to the lack of knowledge regarding formaldehyde’s toxicitytruckloads of rotten chicken were exposed to formaldehyde in which “a large network,” including 11 slaughterhouses run by a criminal gang, were implicated. In 2012, 1 billion rupiah (almost USD100,000) of fish imported from Pakistan to Batam, Indonesia, were found laced with formaldehyde. Formalin use in foods is a crucial problem in Bangladesh currently. Local stores and supermarkets often sell fruits, fishes, and vegetables that have been treated with formalin to keep them fresh. However, in 2015, a Formalin Control Bill was passed in the Parliament of Bangladesh with a provision of life-term imprisonment as the maximum punishment and in addition 2,000,000 BDT as fine but not less than 500,000 BDT for importing, production or hoarding of formalin without license.


borax /ˈbɔː ræks/: HÀN THE: a salt of boric acid.

Food additive

Borax, given the E number E285, is used as a food additive in some countries, but is banned in some countries, like the U.S., and Thailand. to assist preservationIts use as a cooking ingredient is to add a firm rubbery texture to the food, or as a preservative. In oriental cooking it is mostly used for its texturing properties.  was found to have been added tois a common, but forbidden, additive to such foods as noodles, bakso (meatballs), and steamed rice. The country’s Directorate of Consumer Protection warns of the risk of liver cancer with high consumption over a period of 5–10 years.


salt.’pe.tre: salt.’pe.ter/ˌsɔːltˈpiːtər/ KNO3: Potassium nitrate /pəˈtæsiəm//ˈnaɪtreɪt, -trət/ kali nitrát: diêm tiêu/sinh: a white powder used for pre’serving food and making matches and ‘gunpowder /ˈɡʌnpaʊdər/. probably representing sal petrae ‘salt of rock’ (i.e. found as an encrustation). odourless: odorless: /ˈoʊdərləs/.

Food preparation

is widely used as a thickening agent in soups and stews. used to soften food and reduce cooking time.  is also an essential ingredient in making special porridges, known as ‘saltpetre porridge’. used in the curing of mutton to make “reestit” mutton, a local delicacy.

Food preservation

In the process of food preservation, potassium nitrate has been a common ingredient of salted meat. used in some food applications. When used as a food additive . nitrate salts have been suspected of producing the carcinogen nitrosamine.



Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, diethylhexyl phthalate, DEHP; dioctyl phthalate, DOP), is an organic compound with the formula C8H4(C8H17COO)2. DEHP is the most common member of the class of phthalates which are used as plasticizers. It is the diester of phthalic acid and the branched-chain 2-ethylhexanol. This colorless viscous liquid is soluble in oil, but not in water. Accounting for an almost 54% market share in 2010, DEHP is a High Production Volume Chemical.[3]

The most common exposure to DEHP comes through food with an average consumption of 0.25 milligrams per day. It can also leach into a liquid that comes in contact with the plastic; it extracts faster into nonpolar solvents (e.g. oils and fats in foods packed in PVC). Fatty foods that are packaged in plastics that contain DEHP are more likely to have higher concentrations such as milk products, fish or seafood, and oils. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) therefore permits use of DEHP-containing packaging only for foods that primarily contain water.

2011 Taiwan food scandal. In May 2011, the illegal use of the plasticizer DEHP in clouding agents for use in food and beverages has been reported in TaiwanAn inspection of products initially discovered the presence of plasticizers. As more products were tested, inspectors found more manufacturers using DEHP and DINP. The Department of Health confirmed that contaminated food and beverages had been exported to other countries and regions, which reveals the widespread prevalence of toxic plasticizers.


salt shaker: salt cellar: hủ chứa muối để rắc lên thức ăn. In everyday English, people usually say milk goes bad or, in British English, goes off, rather than goes sour.

sultan:/ˈsʌltən/ a Muslim ruler. /ˈmʊzləm, ˈmʊzlɪm, ˈmʌz-, ˈmʊs-/ (n,dj). Brunei: bru ‘nai, ‘bru nai.



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