Cell -> Cell membrane + Protoplasm.
Protoplasm -> Nucleus + Cytoplasm.
Nucleus -> Nucleolus + others
Cytoplasm -> Organelles (water-insoluble) + Cytosol (water-soluble)
Organelles: cytoskeleton, mitochondrion, Golgi apparatus, lysosome, centrosome, ribosome, chloroplast, (rough and smooth) endoplasmic reticulum, vesicles.
Components of a typical animal cell:
- Nucleolus NHÂN CON (HẠCH NHÂN) ( or , plural nucleoli or ) a small rounded body within a resting nucleus that contains RNA and proteins and is involved in the production of ribosomes. Also called nucleole /ˌnjuːkliˈoʊl/. Late Latin: small kernel, literally “a little nut,” equivalent to nucle (us) kernel (see nucleus ) + -olus -ole diminutive suffix indicating something small. ‘nucle.olus’ is the diminutive of ‘nucle.us’.
- ‘Nucle.us /ˈnuː kli əs/ NHÂN TẾ BÀO (pl. ‘nuclei /ˈnuː kli aɪ/) is the central part of some cells, containing the genetic material. a specialized, usually spherical mass of protoplasm encased in a double membrane, and found in most living eukaryotic cells, directing their growth, metabolism, and reproduction, and functioning in the transmission of genetic characters. (connected with genes, not to be confused with generic~general). literally kernel, inner part, diminutive of nux, nuc- ‘nut’.
- ‘Chromo.some/ˈkroʊməsoʊm/one of the very small structures like threads in the nuclei (= central parts) of animal and plant cells, that carry the genes. late 19th cent.: coined in German from Greek khrōma ‘colour’ + sōma ‘body’. chromo•’somal /ˌkroʊməˈsoʊməl/ adjective. chromosomal abnormalities.
- ‘Ribosome (little dots) /ˈraɪ bəˌsoʊm/ RIBOSOME (NHỮNG CHẤM NHỎ) a tiny, somewhat mitten-shaped organelle occurring in great numbers in the cell cytoplasm either freely, in small clusters, or attached to the outer surfaces of endoplasmic reticula, and functioning as the site of protein manufacture. from ribo (nucleic acid) + -some “body.”
- ‘Vesicle TÚI. /ˈvesɪkl/ 1 (biology) a small bag or hollow structure in the body of a plant or an animal. 2 (medivectical) a small swelling filled with liquid under the skin blister. Origin: diminutive of vesica ‘bladder, blister’. Vesicles are involved in metabolism, transport, buoyancy control, and temporary storage of food and enzymes . They can also act as chemical reaction chambers.
- Rough endo’plasmic re’ticulum /rɪˈtɪk yə ləm/ LƯỚI NỘI CHẤT HẠT. Latin rēti.culum little net; from rēte net.
- Golgi ap.pa’ratus (or “Golgi body”) /ˈgɔl dʒi//ˌæpəˈrætəs/BỘ MÁY GOLGI (THỂ GOLGI) also known as the Golgi complex, Golgi body, or simply the Golgi: an organelle, consisting of layers of flattened sacs, that takes up and processes secretory and synthetic products from the endoplasmic reticulum and then either releases the finished products into various parts of the cell cytoplasm or secretes them to the outside of the cell. Ca·’mil·lo /kɑˈmil lɔ/.
- Cyto’skeleton /ˌsaɪ təˈskɛl ɪ tn/ KHUNG XƯƠNG TẾ BÀO a shifting lattice arrangement of structural and contractile components distributed throughout the cell cytoplasm, composed of microtubules,microfilaments, and larger filaments, functioning as a structural support and transport mechanism.
- Smooth endoplasmic reticulum LƯỚI NỘI CHẤT TRƠN a network of tubular membranes within the cytoplasm of the cell, occurring either with a smooth surface (smooth endoplasmic reticulum) or studded with ribosomes (rough endoplasmic reticulum) involved in the transport of materials.
- Mito.’chondrion TY THỂ/ˌmaɪtoʊˈkɑːndriən/ noun word origin from Greek mitos ‘thread’ + khondrion (diminutive of khondros ‘granule’). (pl. mitochondria /ˌmaɪtoʊˈkɑːndriə/) (biology) a small part found in most cells, in which the energy in food is released. mito•’chon•drial /ˌmaɪtoʊˈkɑːndriəl/ mitochondrial DNA.
- ‘Vacu.ole /ˈvæ kju oʊl/ KHÔNG BÀO noun word origin 1 (biology) a small space within a cell, usually filled with liquid 2 (medical) a small hole in the tissue of the body, usually caused by disease. mid 19th cent.: from French, diminutive of Latin vacuus ‘empty’.
- ‘Cytosol /ˈsaɪ təˌsɔl, -ˌsɒl/ BÀO TƯƠNG the water-‘soluble components of cell cytoplasm /ˈsɑːljəbl/, ‘constituting the fluid portion that remains after removal of the organelles BÀO QUAN and other intracellular structures. The solution of proteins and metabolites inside a biological cell, in which the insoluble organelles are suspended.
- ‘Lysosome /ˈlaɪ səˌsoʊm/ LYSOSOME a cell organelle containing enzymes that digest particles and that disintegratethe cell after its death. Origin: lyso-: a word-forming element indicating “loosening, dissolving, freeing,“; –some: from Greek sōma ‘body’.
- ‘Centrosome /ˈsɛn trəˌsoʊm/ TRUNG THỂ (Latin centrum ‘center‘ + Greek sōma ‘body‘) a small region near the nucleus in the cell cytoplasm, containing the centrioles.
- Cell membrane MÀNG TẾ BÀO a very thin membrane, composed of lipids and protein, that surrounds the cytoplasm of a cell and controls the passage of substances into and out of the cell.
p’las.ma /ˈp læ z mə/ = ‘pla.sm /ˈplæzəm/ early 18th cent. (in the sense ‘mould, shape’): from late Latin, literally mould, from Greek plasma, from plassein ‘to shape’. a combining form with the meanings “living substance,” “tissue,” “substance of a cell,”.
‘Cytoplasm /ˈsaɪtoʊplæzəm/: TẾ BÀO CHẤT: all the living material in a cell, not including the nucleus. cy•to•’plas•mic /ˌsaɪtoʊˈplæzmɪk/ adjective. Origin: cyto– a combining form meaning “cell.” ‘cy.to.pla.sm /ˈsaɪ təˌplæz əm/ TẾ BÀO CHẤT the protoplasm of a cell contained within the cell membrane but excluding the nucleus: contains organelles, vesicles, and other inclusions. containing cytosol, organelles, cytoskeleton.
‘protoplasm /ˈproʊtəplæzəm/: chất nguyên sinh (bao gồm tế bào chất và hạch nhân) the living contents of a cell, differentiated into cytoplasm and nucleus. from Greek prōtos “first,” “foremost,” “earliest form of,”.
‘or·gan·”el.le /ˌɔr gəˈnɛl, ˈɔr gəˌnɛl/ a specialized part of a cell having some specific function; a cell organ. The nucleus, the mitochondrion, the chloroplast, the Golgi apparatus, the lysosome, and the endoplasmic reticulum are all examples of organelles.
‘ch.lo.ro.plast /ˈklɔː rə plæst/ (LỤC LẠP) plastid /ˈplæs tɪd/ (LẠP THỂ, THỂ HẠT) containing ‘ch.lo.ro.phyll /ˈklɔː rə fɪl/ (CHẤT DIỆP LỤC) and other pigments (CHẤT SẮC TỐ); in plants that carry out photosynthesis /ˌfoʊtoʊˈsɪnθəsɪs/ (QUÁ TRÌNH QUANG HỢP). from Greek khlōros ‘green’ + phullon ‘leaf’. from Greek khlōros ‘green’ + plastos ‘formed’.
plastid (LẠP THỂ) any of various small particles in the cytoplasm of the cells of plants and some animals containing pigments or starch or oil or protein. from Greek: πλαστός; plastós: formed, molded)
me•’tab•ol•ism /məˈtæbəlɪzəm/ noun word origin: from Greek metabolē ‘change’ (from metaballein ‘to change’) + -ism. [uncountable, singular] (biology) the chemical processes in living things that change food, etc. into energy and materials for growth. The body’s metabolism is slowed down by extreme cold. meta•’bol•ic /ˌmetəˈbɑːlɪk/ adjective [usually before noun] a metabolic process/disorder. a high/low metabolic rate. me•’tab•ol•ize /məˈtæbəlaɪz/ verb. ‘meta- /ˈmetə/ word origin: from Greek meta ‘with, across, or after’. (in nouns, adjectives and verbs) 1 connected with a change of position or state. metamorphosis. metabolism. 2 higher; beyond. metaphysics metalanguage. ‘meta.”morphosis /ˌmetəˈmɔːrfəsɪs/a process in which sb/sth changes completely into sth different. late Middle English: via Latin from Greek metamorphōsis, from metamorphoun ‘transform, change shape’. morph (v)/mɔːrf/.
A eu.’ka.ry.ote (/juːˈkæri.oʊt/ or /juːˈkæriət/) is any organism whose cells contain a nucleus and other organelles enclosed within membranes. Eukaryotes belong to the taxon Eukarya or Eukaryota.
di•’mi.nu•tive /dɪ ˈmɪ njə tɪv/ adjective, noun . word origin: from Latin deminut- ‘diminished’, from the verb deminuere, from minuere ‘make small’. adjective (formal) very small. She was a diminutive figure beside her husband. noun 1 a word or an ending of a word that shows that sb/sth is small, for example piglet(= a young pig), kitchenette(= a small kitchen) 2 a short informal form of a word, especially a name ‘Nick’ is a common diminutive of ‘Nicholas’.