Geological Time Scale

Niên đại địa chất được sử dụng bởi các nhà địa chấtcác nhà khoa học khác để miêu tả thời gian và quan hệ của các sự kiện đã diễn ra trong lịch sử Trái Đất. Khái niệm này cũng có thể được dùng để miêu tả các sự kiện của vật thể khác trong vũ trụ (ví dụ như niên đại địa chất của Mặt Trăng Lunar geologic timescale); bài viết này chỉ tập trung vào niên đại địa chất trên Trái Đất. Thời gian được tính bằng Ma (Mega annum): triệu năm hoặc Ka (Kilo annum): nghìn năm.

Các nhà địa chất học cho rằng Trái Đất hình thành khoảng 4.570 Ma trước đây. Khoảng thời gian địa chất trong quá khứ của Trái Đất được xây dựng thành thang thời gian địa chất có các cấp tính từ cao xuống thấp là liên đại (eon), nguyên đại hay đại (era), kỷ (period), thế (epoch), kỳ (age) và thời (chron) khác nhau, tương ứng với thang phân vị địa tầng: liên giới, giới, hệ, thống, bậcđới. Nhưng cần lưu ý đây là hai hệ thống khác nhau. Ví dụ một đại là khoảng thời gian liên tục nhất định trong lịch sử Trái Đất, trong khi địa tầng tương ứng của đại đó (nghĩa là giới) ở một khu vực nào đó thì là các lớp đá có niên đại thuộc đại này nhưng có thể không liên tục, bị đứt đoạn hay mất tích.

Các số liệu dưới đây phù hợp với số liệu và danh pháp được Ủy ban quốc tế về địa tầng học (ICS) khuyến nghị.

The largest defined unit of time is the supereon composed of Eons. Eons are divided into Eras, which are in turn divided into Periods, Epochs and Stages. At the same time paleontologists define a system of faunal stages, of varying lengths, based on the kinds of animal fossils found there. In many cases, such faunal stages have been adopted in building the geological nomenclature, though in general there are far more recognized faunal stages than defined geological time units.

The largest defined unit of time is the supereon, composed of eons. Eons are divided into eras, which are in turn divided into periods, epochs and ages. The terms “eonothem“, “erathem“, “system“, “series“, and “stage” are used to refer to the layers of rock that correspond to these periods of geologic time in Earth’s history.

~~~~~~~~

Phân loại

Tiền Cambri (Precambrian)(priːˈkæmbrɪən ) hoặc Ẩn Sinh (Cryptozoic)/ˌkrɪp təˈzoʊ ɪk/
Tên Thời gian Ghi chú
Liên đại Thái Viễn Cổ hay Hỏa Thành (Hadean) /heɪˈdi ən, ˈheɪ di ən/ 3.800-4.500 Ma
Đại Cryptic /ˈkrɪp tɪk/ hay đại Bí ẩn 4.100-4.500 Ma
Các nhóm Lòng chảo (Basin Groups)/ˈbeɪsn/ 3.920-4.100 Ma
Kỷ Nectaris (Nectarian)(nɛkˈtɛərɪən) 3.850-3.920 Ma cùng thời kỳ với sự xuất hiện của lòng chảo ‘Nectaris (biển Mật Hoa) trên Mặt Trăng
Kỷ Imbrium Sớm (Lower Imbrian)(ˈɪmbrɪən) 3.800-3.850 Ma cùng niên đại với sự xuất hiện của biển ‘Imbrium (biển Mưa) trên Mặt Trăng
Liên đại Thái cổ (Archean/Archaean/Archeozoic) /ɑrˈki ən//ˌɑr ki əˈzoʊ ɪk/ hay Vô Sinh (Azoic)(əˈzəʊɪk , eɪ-) 2.500-3.800 Ma
.
Đại Tiền Thái cổ (Eo-archean)(ˈioʊ, ˈiə)(primeval, primaeval: /praɪˈmiːvl/: very ancient) 3.600-3.800 Ma
Đại Cổ Thái Cổ (Paleo-archean)(palaeo-)(ˈpeɪlioʊ ; ˈpeɪliə ; ˈpælioʊ ; ˈpæliə) (ancient) 3.200-3.600 Ma
Đại Trung Thái Cổ (Meso-archean)(ˈmɛsoʊ ; ˈmɛzoʊ ; ˈmɛsə ; mesˈə; ˈmisoʊ ; ˈmisə)(middle or intermediate) 2.800-3.200 Ma
Đại Tân Thái Cổ (Neo-archean)(noʊ- ) (new; in a later form) 2.500-2.800 Ma
Liên đại Nguyên sinh hay Nguyên Cổ (Proterozoic)(ˌprəʊtərəʊˈzəʊɪk ) 540-2.500 Ma
Đại Cổ Nguyên Sinh (Paleo-proterozoic) 1.600-2.500 Ma
. Kỷ Sideros (Siderian)(/sˈdɪəriən/; Greek: sideros, meaning “iron”) hay kỷ Thành Thiết 2.300-2.500 Ma
Kỷ Rhyax (Rhyacian) (/rˈsiən/; Greek: Ρυαξ (rhyax), meaning “stream of lava/ˈlɑːvə/”) hay kỷ Tằng Xâm 2.050-2.300 Ma
Kỷ Orosira (Orosirian)(/ˌɒrˈsɪəriən/;Greek: oroseiraὀροσειρά, meaning “mountain range”); hay kỷ Tạo Sơn 1.800-2.050 Ma
Kỷ Statheros (Statherian)(/stəˈθɪəriən/; Greek: statheros, meaning “stable, firm”) hay kỷ Cố Kết 1.600-1.800 Ma
Đại Trung Nguyên Sinh (Meso-proterozoic) 1.000-1.600 Ma
Kỷ Calymma (Calymmian) (/keɪ’lɪmiən, kæ-/ from Greek calymma, “cover”) hay kỷ Cái Tằng 1.400-1.600 Ma
Kỷ Ectasis (Ectasian)(/ɪk’teɪziən/ from Greek ectasis, “extension”) hay kỷ Duyên Triển 1.200-1.400 Ma
Kỷ Stenos (Stenian)(/’sti:niən, ‘ste-/ from Greek stenos, “narrow”) hay kỷ Hiệp Đái 1.000-1.200 Ma
Đại Tân Nguyên Sinh (Neo-proterozoic) 542-1.000 Ma
Kỷ Tonas (Tonian)(/’toʊniən/ from Greek tonas, “stretch”) hay kỷ Lạp Thân 850-1.000 Ma
Kỷ Cryogen (Cryogenian)(/krˈɛniən/, from Greek cryos “cold” and genesis “birth” /ˈdʒenəsɪs/) hay kỷ Thành Băng 630-850 Ma
Kỷ Ediacara (Ediacaran) /diˈækərən/ 542-630 Ma named after the Ediacara Hills where geologist Reg Sprigg first discovered fossils of the eponymous Ediacara biota in 1946.

Ba liên đại trên đây trước đây được gọi chung là Tiền Cambri (Precambrian) hoặc Ẩn Sinh (Cryptozoic) kéo dài khoảng 4 tỉ năm.

Liên đại Hiển sinh (Phanerozoic)(/ˌfænərəˈzəʊɪk/from the Ancient Greek words φανερός (phanerós) and ζωή (zōḗ), meaning “visible life”)
Tên Thời gian Ghi chú
Đại Cổ sinh (Paleozoic) (/ˌpliəˈzɪk,ˌpæ/;[1][2] from the Greek palaios (παλαιός), “old” and zoe (ζωή), “life”, meaning “ancient life”[3])(paleo- + zo- + -ic) 248-542 Ma
.
Kỷ Cambri (Cambrian) (/ˈkæmbriən/ or /ˈkmbriən/) 490-542 Ma  named after Cambria, the Latinised form of Cymru, the Welsh name for Wales, where Britain’s Cambrian rocks are best exposed.
Kỷ Ordovic (Ordovician)(/ɔːrdəˈvɪʃən/) 440-490 Ma named after a Celtic tribe, the Ordovices.
Kỷ Silur (Silurian)(saɪˈlʊərɪən)(sɪˈlʊriən) 409-439 Ma  named after a Celtic tribe of Wales, the Silures.
Kỷ Devon (Devonian)(dɪˈvoʊniən) 359-416 Ma named after Devon, a county in southwestern England, where a controversial argument in the 1830s over the age and structure of the rocks found distributed throughout the county was eventually resolved by the definition of the Devonian period in the geological timescale.
Kỷ Cacbon hay kỷ Than đá, kỷ Thạch Thán (Carboniferous) (/ˌkɑːrbəˈnɪfərəs/ means “coal-bearing” and derives from the Latin words carbō (“coal“) and ferō (“I bear, I carry”, ‘containing, producing’ from Latin -fer), 280-340 Ma the period in the earth’s history when layers of coal were formed underground. reflects the fact that many coal beds were formed globally during that time.
Kỷ Permi (Permian)(ˈpɜrmiən) 248-280 Ma The concept of the Permian was introduced in 1841 by geologist Sir Roderick Murchison, who named it after the city of Perm.
Đại Trung sinh (Mesozoic) (/ˌmɛsəˈzɪk,ˌm, s/ or /ˌmɛzəˈzɪk, ˌm, s/ means “middle life”, deriving from the Greek prefix meso-/μεσο- for “between” and zōon/ζῷον meaning “animal” or “living being”.) 65-251 Ma
.
Kỷ Trias hay kỷ Tam Điệp (Triassic) /trˈæsɪk/ (C19: from Latin trias triad, with reference to the three subdivisions) 200-251 Ma  The Triassic was named in 1834 by Friedrich von Alberti, after the three distinct rock layers (tri meaning “three”) that are found throughout Germany and northwestern Europered beds, capped by marine limestone, followed by a series of terrestrial mudand sandstones—called the “Trias”.[11]
Kỷ Jura (Jurassic): (/ˈræsɪk/) 146-200 Ma The Jurassic is named after the Jura Mountains within the European Alps, where limestone strata from the period were first identified.)
Kỷ Creta hay kỷ Phấn Trắng (Cretaceous)(krɪˈteɪʃəs ) 65-146 Ma The Cretaceous as a separate period was first defined by Belgian geologist Jean d’Omalius d’Halloy in 1822,[7] using strata in the Paris Basin[8] and named for the extensive beds of chalk (calcium carbonate deposited by the shells of marine invertebrates, principally coccoliths), found in the upper Cretaceous of western Europe.[9] The name Cretaceous was derived from Latin creta, meaning chalk.[10]
Đại Tân sinh (Cenozoic)(pronunciation: /ˌsnəˈzɪk,ˌsɛ/;[1][2] also Cænozoic, Caenozoic or Cainozoic: /ˌknəˈzɪk,ˌk/; meaning “new life”, from Greek καινόςkainos “new”, and ζωή zoe “life”[5]) 0-65 Ma
Phân đại Đệ tam (T)(‘Ter.ti.a.ry) /ˈtɜːrʃieri/ /ˈtɜːrʃəri/ 2,6-65 Ma Trước đây là kỷ Đệ Tam (INQUA)
. Kỷ Paleogen hay kỷ Cổ Cận, Cổ Đệ Tam, Đệ Tam Hạ. The Paleogene (/ˈpælən/ or /ˈplən/; also spelled Palaeogene or Palæogene; informally Lower Tertiary) 23-65 Ma It is the beginning of the Cenozoic Era of the present Phanerozoic Eon.
. Thế Paleocen hay Cổ Tân (Chớm Mới). ‘Paleocene (/ˈpæliəˌsn, ˈpæ, li/[2]) or Palaeocene, the “old recent”. from Ancient Greek and refers to the “old(er)” (παλαιός, palaios) “new” (καινός, kainos) fauna that arose during the epoch. 56-65 Ma It is the first epoch of the Paleogene Period in the modern Cenozoic Era.
Thế Eocen hay Thủy Tân (Hơi Mới) Eocene /ˈəˌsn, ˈ/ from the Ancient Greek ἠώς (eos: dawn) and καινός (kainos, cene: new) and refers to the “dawn” of modern (‘new’) fauna that appeared during the epoch. 34-56 Ma
Thế Oligocen hay Tiệm Tân (Khá Mới, Mới Ít) (Oligo.cene)(/ˈɒlɡsn/ from the Ancient Greek ὀλίγος (oligos: few) and καινός (kainos, cene: new, recent), and refers to the sparsity of extant forms of molluscs/ˈmɑːləsk/.) 23-34 Ma The Oligocene is often considered an important time of transition, a link between the archaic world of the tropical Eocene and the more modern ecosystems of the Miocene.
Kỷ Neogen hay kỷ Tân Cận, Tân Đệ Tam, Đệ Tam Thượng. Neogene ( /ˈnəˌn/) or informally Upper Tertiary. 0-23 Ma The terms Neogene System (formal) and upper Tertiary System (informal) describe the rocks deposited during the Neogene Period.
. Thế Miocen hay Trung Tân (Nửa Mới) Miocene /ˈməˌsn/ from the Greek words μείων (meiōn, “less”) and καινός (kainos, “new”)[3] and means “less recent” because it has 18% fewer modern sea invertebrates than the Pliocene.) 5,3-23 Ma
Thế Pliocen hay Thượng Tân (Thật Mới), trừ tầng GelasiaPliocene (/ˈpləˌsn/; also Pleiocene) from the Greek words πλεῖον (pleion, “more“) and καινός (kainos, “new“)[6] and means roughly “continuation of the recent”, referring to the essentially modern marine mollusc faunas. 2,6-5,3 Ma fauna (pl. faunae) /ˈfɔːnə/ noun [uncountable, countable] all the animals living in an area or in a particular period of history. the local flora and fauna (= plants and animals). (technical) land and marine faunas.
Phân đại đệ Tứ (Q) Quaternary /kwəˈtɜːrnəri/ 0-2,6 Ma Trước đây là kỷ Đệ Tứ (INQUA)
. Kỷ Neogen đang diễn tiến
. Thế Pleistocen truyền thống hay Canh Tân (Vừa Mới, Mới Nhiều). Từ 30/6/2009 được mở rộng để bao gồm cả tầng Gelasia GelasianPleistocene /ˈplstəˌsn, t/ or informally Ice Age.  He constructed the name “Pleistocene” (“Most New” or “Newest”) from the Greek πλεῖστος, pleīstos, “most”, and καινός, kainós (latinized as cænus), “new”;[3] this contrasting with the immediately preceding Pliocene (“More New” or “Newer“, from πλείων, pleíōn, “more”, and kainós; usual spelling: Pliocene), and the immediately subsequent Holocene (“wholly new” or “entirely new”, from ὅλος, hólos, “whole”, and kainós) epoch, which extends to the present time. 10 Ka – 1,8 Ma Tầng Gelasia của thế Pliocen cũ/Pleistocen sửa đổi, ICS trước đây đặt tầng Gelasia trong thế Pliocen nhưng từ 30/6/2009 đã chuyển tầng này sang thế Pleistocen, còn INQUA đặt tầng này trong thế Pleistocen: khoảng 1,8-2,6 Ma. The Pleistocene covers the recent period of repeated glaciations.
Mới). Holocene /ˈhɒləˌsn, ˈh/. 10 Ka – hiện nay

Tóm tắt

Triệu năm

~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Table of geologic time

The following table summarizes the major events and characteristics of the periods of time making up the geologic time scale. As above, this time scale is based on the International Commission on Stratigraphy. The height of each table entry does not correspond to the duration of each subdivision of time. (not shown to scale)

[hide]Geologic time
Eon Era Period/Age4,5 Epoch Major Events Start
(Years Ago)3,6
Phanerozoic Cainozoic Quaternary Holocene Rise of human population; Last ice age ends 11,700
Pleistocene Ice ages and warmer periods; extinction of many large mammals; evolution of fully modern humans 2.588 million
Tertiary Neogene Pliocene Climate cools further; Australopithecine hominins evolve 5.333 million
Miocene Earth has many forests; animals flourish but later temperatures start to cool 23.03 million
Palaeogene Oligocene The continents move into their current places 33.9 million
Eocene The Himalayas are formed as India moves into Asia 56 million
Palaeocene India reaches Asia; mammals evolve into new groups; birds survive extinction 66 million
Mesozoic Cretaceous Upper Cretaceous Dinosaurs become extinct in K/T extinction event. 100.5 million
Lower Cretaceous Dinosaurs continue to flourish; marsupial and placentalmammals appear; first flowering plants 145 million
Jurassic Upper Jurassic Dinosaurs dominate on land; first birds, early mammals; conifers, cycads and other seed plants. Supercontinent Pangaea begins to break up 163.5 million
Middle Jurassic 174.1 million
Lower Jurassic 201.3 million
Triassic Upper Triassic First dinosaurs; pterosaurs; ichthyosaurs; plesiosaurs; turtles; egg-laying mammals 237 million
Middle Triassic 247.2 million
Lower Triassic 252.17 million
Palaeozoic Permian P/Tr extinction event – 95% of species become extinct. Supercontinent Pangaea forms. 298.9 million
Carboniferous Pennsylvanian Tropical climate: abundant insects, first synapsids and reptiles; coal forests 323.2 million
Mississippian Large primitive trees 358.9 million
Devonian Age of fish; first amphibia; clubmosses and horsetails appear; progymnosperms (first seed bearing plants) appear 419.2 million
Silurian First land plant fossils 443.4 million
Ordovician Invertebrates dominant 485.4 million
Cambrian Major diversification of life in the Cambrian adaptive radiation 541 million
Proterozoic Neoproterozoic2 Ediacaran First multi-celled animals 635 million
Cryogenian Possible Snowball Earth period 720 million
Tonian Supercontinent Rodinia breaks up 1 billion
Mesoproterozoic Stenian The supercontinent Rodinia forms 1.2 billion
Ectasian First sexually reproducing organism 1.4 billion
Calymmian The supercontinent of Columbia breaks up 1,6 billion
Palaeoproterozoic Statherian Formation of the Columbia (supercontinent) happens during this period 1.8 billion
Orosirian First complex single-celled life 2.05 billion
Rhyacian Replacement of CO2 by oxygen triggers the Huronian glaciationin this period 2.3 billion
Siderian The breakup of the supercontinent Kenorland occurs 2.5 billion
Archaean Neoarchaean The supercontinent Kenorland forms 2.8 billion
Mesoarchaean The supercontinet Ur is from this era 3.2 billion
Palaeoarchaean Bacteria build stromatolites 3.6 billion
Eoarchaean 1st supercontinet Vaalbara existed during this era 4 billion
Hadean Formation of Earth 4.6 billion years ago; formation of Moon 4.5 bya 4.54 billion (~4.6 bya)
  1. In North America, the Carboniferous is subdivided into Mississippian and Pennsylvanian sub-periods or epochs.
  2. Discoveries in the past quarter century have substantially changed the view of geologic and paleontologic events just before the Cambrian. The term Neoproterozoicis used now, but older writers might have used ‘Ediacaran’, ‘Vendian’, ‘Varangian’, ‘Precambrian’, ‘Protocambrian’, ‘Eocambrian’, or might have extended the Cambrian further back in time.
  3. Dates are slightly uncertain, and differences of a few percent between sources are common. This is because deposits suitable for radiometric dating seldom occur exactly at the places in the geologic column where we would most like to have them. Dates with an * are radiometrically determined based on internationally agreedGSSPs.
  4. Paleontologists often refer to faunal stages rather than geologic periods. The faunal stage nomenclature is quite complex. Seehttp://flatpebble.nceas.ucsb.edu/public/harland.html for an excellent time ordered list of faunal stages.
  5. In common usage the TertiaryQuaternary and PalaeogeneNeogeneQuaternary are treated as periods. The term ‘age’ (e.g. ‘Neogene Age’) is sometimes used instead of ‘period’.
  6. The time shown in the “Years Ago” column is that of the start of the Epoch in the “Epoch” column.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/help/timeform.php
[Note: “mya” means “millions of years ago”]

  Phanerozoic
(542.0 mya
to present)
  Cenozoic
(65.5 mya
to present)
Quaternary (2.588 mya to present)

Neogene (23.03 to 2.588 mya)

Paleogene (65.5 to 23.03 mya)

  • Oligocene (33.9 to 23.03 mya)
  • Eocene (55.8 to 33.9 mya)
  • Paleocene (65.5 to 55.8 mya)
  Mesozoic
(251.0 to
65.5 mya)
Cretaceous (145.5 to 65.5 mya)

  • Upper (99.6 to 65.5 mya)
  • Lower (145.5 to 99.6 mya)
Jurassic (199.6 to 145.5 mya)

  • Upper (161.2 to 145.5 mya)
  • Middle (175.6 to 161.2 mya)
  • Lower (199.6 to 175.6 mya)
Triassic (251.0 to 199.6 mya)

  • Upper (228.7 to 199.6 mya)
  • Middle (245.9 to 228.7 mya)
  • Lower (251.0 to 245.9 mya)
  Paleozoic
(542.0 to
251.0 mya)
Permian (299.0 to 251.0 mya)

  • Lopingian (260.4 to 251.0 mya)
  • Guadalupian (270.6 to 260.4 mya)
  • Cisuralian (299.0 to 270.6 mya)
Carboniferous (359.2 to 299.0 mya)

  • Pennsylvanian (318.1 to 299.0 mya)
    • Upper (307.2 to 299.0 mya)
    • Middle (311.7 to 307.2 mya)
    • Lower (318.1 to 311.7 mya)
  • Mississippian (359.2 to 318.1 mya)
    • Upper (328.3 to 318.1 mya)
    • Middle (345.3 to 328.3 mya)
    • Lower (359.2 to 345.3 mya)
Devonian (416.0 to 359.2 mya)

  • Upper (385.3 to 359.2 mya)
  • Middle (397.5 to 385.3 mya)
  • Lower (416.0 to 397.5 mya)
Silurian (443.7 to 416.0 mya)

  • Pridoli (418.7 to 416.0 mya)
  • Ludlow (422.9 to 418.7 mya)
  • Wenlock (428.2 to 422.9 mya)
  • Llandovery (443.7 to 428.2 mya)
Ordovician (488.3 to 443.7 mya)

  • Upper (460.9 to 443.7 mya)
  • Middle (471.8 to 460.9 mya)
  • Lower (488.3 to 471.8 mya)
Cambrian (542.0 to 488.3 mya)

  • Furongian (499 to 488.3 mya)
  • Series 3 (510 to 499 mya)
  • Series 2 (521 to 510 mya)
  • Terreneuvian (542.0 to 521 mya)
  Precambrian
(4600 to
542.0 mya)
  Proterozoic
(2500 to
542.0 mya)
Neoproterozoic (1000 to 542.0 mya)
Mesoproterozoic (1600 to 1000 mya)
Paleoproterozoic (2500 to 1600 mya)
  Archean
(4000 to
2500 mya)
Neoarchean (2800 to 2500 mya)
Mesoarchean (3200 to 2800 mya)
Paleoarchean (3600 to 3200 mya)
Eoarchean (4000 to 3600 mya)

Hadean
(4600 to 4000 mya)

* Dates from the International Commission on Stratigraphy‘s International Stratigraphic Chart, 2009; colors adopted from the Commission for the Geological Map of the World, 5/26/2011.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *